Distribution of nominal endings in a chart

Part two

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M D C B N Ms W sg. – M D C B N Ms W pl.

Remark: everywhere below the term “adjectives” means also numerals and pronouns with adjectival declension (e.g. sam, wszystek, m鎩, nasz, jeden, pierwszy). Remaining pronouns were skipped because of exceptional endings in their declension.


Nominative plural

Masculine-personal nouns have two forms here: the ordinary one, with special endings, and the featured one, with the same endings as non-personal-masculine nouns. The ordinary form join masculine-personal forms of adjectives, pronouns, verbs etc, e.g. ci dobrzy ch這pi poszli. The featured form requires non-masculine-personal forms, e.g. te dobre ch這py posz造. Some substantives do not create the featured form practically (e.g. ci ch這pcy – te ch這pce?), others do not create the masculine-personal form (e.g. te kar造 – ci karli?). When the masculine-personal form lacks, the identity of genitive and accusative plural prooves the masculine-personal gender of the given substantive (e.g. tych ch這pc闚, tych kar堯w).

Two separate masculine-personal forms sometimes function side–by–side. In such instances the form with the ending ~owie has a more dignified, solemn character. Three different forms exist altogether then, each of them with a little different meaning shade. E.g. ci profesorowie (solemn form) – ci profesorzy (usual form) – te profesory (featured form: offensive, colloquial, poetic, “heroic”).

Masculine-personal forms
~i numerous m-pers. substs., 1, 2, 4 cl. s御iedzi, poeci, Huculi, W這si
m-pers. adjectives, 1, 2, 4, 6–10 cl, partially 11 cl. (=11$) bosi, mali, cisi, tani, moi, g逝pi, sokoli, duzi, nasi
numerous m-pers. substs., adj. decl., 1, 2, 4, 6–10 cl. my郵iwi, rozwiedzeni, biegli, bli幡i
~y most m-pers. substs., 3, 5 cl. liderzy, psychiatrzy, Polacy, koledzy
some m-pers. substs., 11 cl, ~c szewcy, je鎍y, ch這pcy, starcy, 這wcy
m-pers. adjectives, 3, 5, 11 cl. starzy, drodzy, obcy, bo篡
most m-pers. substs., adj. decl., 3, 5, 11 cl. wikarzy, bliscy, s逝膨cy
~e* m-pers. substs., 1 cl, nom.sg. ~in~, plus 4 others, nom.sg. ~an Amerykanie, S這wianie; Cyganie, Hiszpanie, krajanie, zakrystianie
m-pers. substs., 6–11 cl. lenie, zb鎩e, gapie, kowale, rodzice, wielmo瞠
~owie personal names, m-pers. substs. with nom.sg. ~o, many others Ariowie, Fredrowie, gauczowie, uczniowie
some m-pers. substs., adj. decl. Lindowie, podstolowie, chor捫owie
~a m-pers. substs. brat, ksi康z, ksi捫 bracia, ksi篹a, ksi捫皻a
~aj m-pers. forms of numerals dwa, oba dwaj, obaj
~ej m-pers. forms of numerals trzy, cztery trzej, czterej
~鏂h m-pers. forms of the numeral dwa dw鏂h
~u m-pers. forms of many numerals obu, pi璚iu, dziesi璚iu, stu, kilku, paru
~ech m-pers. forms of numerals trzy, cztery trzech, czterech
~o collective substs., type pa雟two pa雟two
Non-masculine-personal forms
~y m substs., 1–4 cl. poety, Hucu造, lidery; wo造, tury; mury, dachy; satelity
n substs. oko, ucho oczy, uszy
f substs., 1–4, 12 cl. kobiety, szko造, W璕ry, muchy, W這chy, statuy
substantive Niemcy (land) Niemcy
some f conson substs., 11 cl. myszy, rzeczy
m-pers. substs., adj. decl., nom.sg. ~e Lindy
numerals trzy, cztery trzy, cztery
~i m substs., 5 cl. Polaki, s逝gi; ptaki; brzegi
m-inanim. substs., 6 cl.: 鄉ie, dzie 鄉ieci, dni
neuter substantive dziecko dzieci
f substs., 5 cl. apteki
some f conson substs., 6–10 cl. sieci, brwi, my郵i
numerals 30, 40 trzydzie軼i, czterdzie軼i
~e* m substs., 6–11 cl. zb鎩e, lekarze; s這nie, wije; szczawie, lokale; ekscelencje
f substantive, 5 cl. r瘯a r璚e
f substs., 6–11, 13 cl. panie, lilie, opcje, ziemie, fale, idee, d這nie, noce
f forms of numerals dwa, oba dwie, obie
numerals 11–19, 200 jedena軼ie, dziewi皻na軼ie, dwie軼ie
~e** some m-pers. substs., 1 cl, ~ns seanse
some f substs., 1 cl, ~nsa szanse
nm-pers. adjectives weso貫, drogie, g逝pie, du瞠, moje, nasze
substs, adj. decl. uczone; chodzone, z這te; lute; m這de; kr鏊owe
~a some m-pers. substs., nom.sg. ~o, and ksi康z, ksi捫 maestra, mikada, ksi篹a, ksi捫皻a
m-inanim. substantive cud cuda
n substs. s這wa, imiona, ciel皻a, wota, akwaria
numerals dwa, oba, kilka, 20, 300, 400 dwa, oba, kilka, dwadzie軼ia, trzysta, czterysta
ZERO numerals 5–10, 50–90, 500–900 pi耩, siedem, dziesi耩, pi耩dziesi徠, dziewi耩set
~o numeral 100 sto
~ numeral par par

Genitive plural
~闚 most m-pers. substs. s御iad闚, poet闚, Amerykan闚, mo軼i闚
m-pers. substs., adj. decl., nom.sg. ~e Lind闚
m-anim. substs., 1–5, 7 cl. kot闚, wo堯w, tur闚, ptak闚, duch闚, wij闚
some m-anim. substs., 6, 11 cl. misi闚, Reksi闚, rydz闚, tasiemc闚
m-inanim. substs., 1–5, 7 cl. sad闚, mur闚, brzeg闚, dach闚, gaj闚
some m-inanim. substs., 6, 9, 10, 11 cl. styczni闚, brzusi闚, korabi闚, cel闚, owoc闚
some n substs., incl. those with ~um pysi闚, wot闚, akwari闚
~i m-pers. substantive brat braci
some m-pers. substs. 6, 7, 10 cl. leni, ludzi, go軼i, z這dziei, kowali, cie郵i
m-anim. substs. 6, 9, 10 cl. s這ni, 鄴逕i, rubli
m-inanim. substs. 6, 9, 10 cl. tytoni, szczawi, lokali
some m-inanim. substs., 7 cl. pokoi
some n substs. dzieci, narz璠zi, 郵epi
some f substs., 6–10 cl. bazi, zbroi, lilii, opcji, g喚bi, butli
f substs., 12, 13 cl. statui, idei
f conson substs., 6–10 cl. osi, kolei, g喚bi, brwi, my郵i
~y some m and n substs., 11 cl. lekarzy, ksi篹y; w篹y, zaj璚y; tysi璚y; pn帷zy
some f vowel substs., 11 cl. sadzy
f conson substs., 11 cl. nocy, myszy
ZERO some m-pers. substs. with ~in~ chrze軼ijan, Indian, parafian, Rosjan, S這wian
some m-pers. substs. ksi捫徠, m篹czyzn, przyjaci馧, s逝g
most n substs. drzew, s堯w, imion, ciel徠
most feminine substs. kobiet, pa, ziem
~u n substs. oko, ucho oczu, uszu
numerals dwa, oba, 5–400 dwu, obu, pi璚iu, szesnastu, stu, czterystu
~ych adjectives, 1–4, 11 cl. m這dych, weso造ch, starych, cichych, 鈍ie篡ch
substs, adj. decl., 1–4, 11 cl. my郵iwych; z這tych; lutych; m這dych; kr鏊owych
~ich adjectives, 5–10 cl. drogich, tanich, g逝pich, sokolich, moich
substs, adj. decl., 5–10 cl. wojskich, bli幡ich, rabbich, podstolich
~鏂h numeral dwa dw鏂h
~ech numerals trzy, cztery trzech, czterech
~a collective substs., type pa雟two pa雟twa

Dative plural
~om most substantives s御iadom, s璠ziom, sto這m, s這wom, kobietom
m-pers. substs., adj. decl., nom.sg. ~e Lindom
numeral dwa dwom
~ym adjectives, 1–4, 11 cl. m這dym, weso造m, starym, cichym, 鈍ie篡m
substs, adj. decl., 1–4, 11 cl. my郵iwym; z這tym; lutym; m這dym; kr鏊owym
~im adjectives, 5–10 cl. drogim, tanim, g逝pim, sokolim, moim
substs, adj. decl., 5–10 cl. wojskim, bli幡im, effendim, rabbim, podstolim
~u numerals dwa, oba, 5–400 dwu, obu, pi璚iu, szesnastu, stu, czterystu
collective substs., type pa雟two pa雟twu
~鏔 numeral dwa dw鏔
~em** numerals trzy, cztery trzem, czterem

Accusative plural
~闚 most m-pers. substs. (=D) s御iad闚, poet闚, Amerykan闚, mo軼i闚
m-pers. substs., adj. decl., nom.sg. ~e (=D) Lind闚
~y some m-pers. substs., 11 cl. (=D) lekarzy, ksi篹y
m-anim. substs., 1–4 cl. (=M) koty, wo造, tury, duchy
m-inanim. substs., 1–4 cl. (=M) sady, wa造, mury, dachy
n substs. oko, ucho (=M) oczy, uszy
feminine substs., 1–4, 12 cl. (=M) kobiety, W璕ry, muchy, W這chy, statuy
substantive Niemcy (=M) Niemcy
some cons. f substs. 11 cl. (=M) myszy, rzeczy
nm-pers. form of the numerals trzy, cztery (=M) trzy, cztery
~i m-pers. subst. brat (=D) braci
some m-pers. substs., 6, 7, 10 cl. (=D) leni, ludzi, go軼i, z這dziei, kowali, cie郵i
m-anim. substs., 5 cl. (=M) ptaki
m-inanim. substs., 5 cl. (=M) brzegi
some m-inanim. substs. 6 cl. (=M) 鄉ieci, dni
neuter subst. dziecko (=M) dzieci
fem substs., 5 cl. (=M) apteki
some cons. f substs., 6–10 cl. (=M) sieci, brwi, my郵i
nm-pers. form of numerals 30, 40 (=M) trzydzie軼i, czterdzie軼i
ZERO some m-pers. substs., nom.sg. ~in~ (=D) Rosjan, S這wian
some other m-pers. substs. (=D) ksi捫徠, m篹czyzn, przyjaci馧, s逝g
nm-pers. form of numerals 5–10, 50–90, 500–900 (=M) pi耩, siedem, dziesi耩, pi耩dziesi徠, dziewi耩set
~e* m-anim. substs., 6–11 cl. (=M) s這nie, wije, 鄴逕ie, ruble, w篹e
m-inanim. substs., 6–11 cl. (=M) tytonie, pokoje, szczawie, lokale, baga瞠
f substantive, 5 cl. r瘯a (=M) r璚e
f substs. 6–11, 13 cl. (=M) panie, szyje, lilie, fale, idee, g喚bie, noce
f forms of numerals dwa, oba (=M) dwie, obie
numerals 11–19, 200 (=M) jedena軼ie, dziewi皻na軼ie, dwie軼ie
~a m-inanim. substantive cud (=M) cuda
n substs. (=M) s這wa, imiona, ciel皻a, wota, akwaria
nm-pers. forms of numerals dwa, oba (=M) dwa, oba
nm-pers. forms of numerals dwa, oba, kilka, 20, 300, 400 (=M) dwa, oba, kilka, dwadzie軼ia, trzysta, czterysta
collective substs., type pa雟two (=D) pa雟twa
~ych m-pers. adjectives, 1–4, 11 cl. (=D) m這dych, weso造ch, starych, cichych, 鈍ie篡ch
m-pers. substs., adj. decl. 1–4, 11 cl. (=D) my郵iwych, bieg造ch, wikarych, s逝膨cych
~ich m-pers. adjectives, 5–10 cl. (=D) drogich, tanich, g逝pich, sokolich, moich
m-pers. substs., adj. decl., 5–10 cl. (=D) bli幡ich, effendich, rabbich, podstolich
~e** some m-inanim. substs., 1 cl. (=M) seanse
nm-pers. adjectives (=M) weso貫, drogie, g逝pie, du瞠, moje, nasze
m-anim. substs., adj. decl. (=M) chodzone, z這te
m-inanim. subst., adj. decl. luty (=M) lute
n substs., adj. decl. (=M) m這de
feminine substs., adj. decl. (=M) po這積e, kr鏊owe
~鏂h m-pers. form of the numeral dwa (=D) dw鏂h
~u m-pers. form of the numeral oba (=D) obu
m-pers. forms of numerals 5–400 (=D) pi璚iu, dziesi璚iu, stu, trzystu
~ech m-pers. forms of nums. trzy, cztery (=D) trzech, czterech
~o the numeral 100 (=M) sto
~ the numeral par (=M) par

Instrumental plural
~ami most substantives s御iadami, poetami, s璠ziami, kotami
m-pers. substs., adj. decl., nom.sg. ~e Lindami
~mi a number of m-pers. substantives bra熤i, go嗆mi, ksi篹mi, lud幟i, przyjaci馧mi
m-anim. subst. ko ko闓i
m-inanim. substs. li嗆, pieni康z li嗆mi, pieni璠zmi
neuter subst. dziecko dzie熤i
f substs. d這, ko嗆 d這闓i, ko嗆mi
~y special form of some m and n substs. laty
~yma alternative form of the substs. oko, ucho oczyma, uszyma
~oma alternative form of the substantive r瘯a r瘯oma
numerals dwa, oba, 5–400 dwoma, oboma, pi璚ioma, szesnastoma, stoma
~ymi adjectives, 1–4, 11 cl. m這dymi, weso造mi, starymi, cichymi, 鈍ie篡mi
substs, adj. decl., 1–4, 11 cl. bieg造mi; z這tymi; lutymi; m這dymi; kr鏊owymi
~imi adjectives, 5–10 cl. drogimi, tanimi, g逝pimi, sokolimi, moimi
substs, adj. decl., 5–10 cl. wojskimi, bli幡imi, rabbimi, podstolimi
~ema* f form of the numerals dwa, oba dwiema, obiema
~ema** numerals trzy, cztery trzema, czterema
~u numerals dwa, oba, 5–400 dwu, obu, pi璚iu, szesnastu, stu, czterystu
~em** collective substs., type pa雟two pa雟twem

Locative plural
~ach most substantives s御iadach, poetach, s璠ziach, kotach
m-pers. substs., adj. decl., nom.sg. ~e Lindach
~ech* exceptionally, the substantives Niemcy, W璕ry, W這chy Niemczech, W璕rzech, W這szech
~ych adjectives, 1–4, 11 cl. (=D) m這dych, weso造ch, starych, cichych, 鈍ie篡ch
substs, adj. decl., 1–4, 11 cl. (=D) my郵iwych; z這tych; lutych; m這dych; kr鏊owych
~ich adjectives, 5–10 cl. (=D) drogich, tanich, g逝pich, sokolich, moich
substs, adj. decl., 5–10 cl. (=D) wojskich, effendich, rabbich, podstolich
~鏂h numeral dwa (=D) dw鏂h
~u numerals dwa, oba, 5–400 (=D) dwu, obu, pi璚iu, szesnastu, stu, czterystu
~ech** numerals trzy, cztery (=D) trzech, czterech
~e* collective substs., type pa雟two pa雟twie

Vocative plural
The form of vocative plural is always equal to nominative plural.

WARNING!
Before the endings ~e*, ~ech*, ~ema* changes of consonants (sometimes also vowels) occur.
Before the endings ~e**, ~ego**, ~ej**, ~emu**, ~em** no changes occur, except the change k, g : ki, gi.


Continuation: discussion


Main pagePolish grammar

2008-02-21