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Traces of laryngeals:

Development of long diphthongs:

Reduction of the vocalism in composites:

Development ǫ, ę < un, in:

Development y, i < un, in:

Development ъ, ь < un, in:

Unetymological yers:

Depalatalization a < ě:

The Polish umlaut o < ъ, ь:

The Polish umlaut o < e:

The Polish umlaut a < ě:

Loss of vowels in Old Polish:


Development of l̥:

Development of ĺ̥:

The Polish umlaut l̥ < ĺ̥:

Development of r̥:

Development of ŕ̥:

The Polish umlaut r̥ < ŕ̥:

Depalatalization of IE palatals:

Origin and development of groups with s, z:

Development x, ą < s:

Other sources of x, ą:

“Exceptional” s after i, u, r, l, k:

Epenthesis of l:

No epenthesis of l:

Expressive ch:

Development dz < z:

Expressive sonorization:

Expressive reduplication:

Other abbreviations and reductions:

Unetymological sounds:


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